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Define Leash Aggressive.....


Guest FrankieWylie
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Guest FrankieWylie

Sherry is getting progressively worse when we encounter other dogs on walks, or out in public in general.

 

Her walking habits improved tremendously when we switched over to a harness, so her pulling and over all leash manners are a lot better!

 

In the beginning, she would get excited, bow, bark, tail wag and want to meet whatever dog we were passing. She seemed excited and playful. We'd walk over, sniff a butt, and move on. Now, she is barking, jumping and also getting Charlie riled up. Honestly, two big dogs barking and lunging is quite intimidating to the passer-by and we aren't able to even get them close enough to sniff. Recently, Charlie has even started to correct Sherry, but she is in such a frenzy that she snaps back. Today, the two of them got into it in front of a neighbor and I was so embarrassed. We turned around and walked home. I didn't know what else to do with them being so ridiculous.

 

Magic NEVER makes a stink. He could not care less about other dogs. Charlie only gets started when Sherry does, and it seems Sherry isn't as aggressive when walking by herself.

It's not as bad when Greg and I walk the three of them together, but lately that almost impossible because of my work schedule. It's apparent though that we are going to have to limit walking the three of them together until we can get her more under control.

 

What are somethings we can do to minimize or get rid of this behavior? I'm not sure what changed but she has gone from "excitable" to plain out spastic. Words of wisdom, please?

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I'm not sure (and others more experienced will hopefully comment on this) but to me, what you're describing doesn't seem to be leash aggression, at least not in the way I've experienced it. Paige has always had leash aggression and it has never taken the form of play bows,barking etc. It's more of a serious dominant posture, licking lips, thousand yard stare, a crouch, high pitched whine, frothing at the mouth followed by a lunge and the 'I will strain you through this muzzle and have you in bits' type barking. This would happen as soon as she saw another dog, regardless of size (though smaller dogs tended to get stalked), and took a long time to work through. This was partially complicated by her prey drive. She would also set Brandi off (who now gets very excited and lunges happily and barks).

 

What has worked is walking with a lot of treats. Every time Paige saw another dog she got a treat wedged into her mouth. This distracted her, and she found it difficult to bark with food in her mouth. But this had to be stuck in there before she went over threshold, otherwise she'd just drop it and go ballistic. She also isn't food motivated so it took time. Brandi got a treat for ignoring Paige and the other dog. Over a period of months (nearly a year), Paige now reacts in a much more similar way to your dog: dominant posture, a quick dart and bark, then back to me for a treat. It's become more of a game really - she has a definite swagger when she does it, rather than a very insecure, angry/ fearful intense reaction. And if the other dog is low energy, no reaction at all. Small fluffies are still problematic.

 

We've also done mixed breed obedience where we've stood around in class and she's been rewarded for lowering her reaction. This works because we have understanding trainers. We've never moved out of the first class (haven't mastered sit, down, stay, or 'look at me'), but we're no longer the worst behaved dog in the class either.

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Do you have a trainer/classes that you can take Sherry to?

That would expose her to more dogs, but in a more controlled environment.

 

We had a 'leash aggressive' Dobe and if she was on leash she would lunge, snarl and snap at any dog that made prolonged eye contect with her...Border Collies, cattle dogs. etc

 

She was much better off leash, however I had to watch her every second. Every second.

 

We attended a lot of training classes where she had to focus on me...Rally-o and Agility.

 

We practiced recall after recall after recall. Watch me. Watch me. Watch me.

 

It was a lot of work but certainly worth it..

 

Nancy...Mom to Sid (Peteles Tiger), Kibo (112 Carlota Galgos) and Joshi.  Missing Casey, Gomer, Mona, Penelope, BillieJean, Bandit, Nixon (Starz Sammie),  Ruby (Watch Me Dash) Nigel (Nigel), and especially little Mario, waiting at the Bridge.

 

 

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I know how you feel. Lou has the same problem. 1st thing is a competent trainer familiar with training greyhounds.

I use the "Watch me method". First I assure Lou that it is ok, I always carry treats in my pocket and perform the watch me when he sees

another dog that starts his behavior. It is not all dogs, justs a certain few. It takes patients and it is not full proof. Good luck and keep us posted.

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have the same issue with Larry! He was other breed friendly when we got him (lived with a chihuahua in his previous home even!) but Nube was so dog-reactive on walks that Larry is now just as bad (or even worse) since he picked it up from Nube. Larry's fine if we're in a Petco doing a M&G but if he's on HIS block or in HIS park, he goes NUTS. It's embarrassing, I know...he makes such a bad example for greyhounds too!

 

I'll try the treat thing -- hopefully that will help!

Kim and Bruce - with Rick (Rick Roufus 6/30/16) and missing my sweet greyhound Angels Rainey (LG's Rainey 10/4/2000 - 3/8/2011), Anubis (RJ's Saint Nick 12/25/2001 - 9/12/12) and Zeke (Hey Who Whiz It 4/6/2009 - 7/20/2020) and Larry (PTL Laroach 2/24/2007 - 8/2/2020) -- and Chester (Lab) (8/31/1990 - 5/3/2005), Captain (Schipperke) (10/12/1992 - 6/13/2005) and Remy (GSP) (?/?/1998 - 1/6/2005) at the bridge
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Guest FrankieWylie

We'll try the watch me method with her walking on her own. The only class I know of offered here is through a trainer that does mostly one-on-one and a few group classes at the local Pet Supplies Plus. I'll have to give her a call and see when the next round is.

 

Sherry is a SUPER smart, friendly girl. She is not snarling or being "aggressive", just barking and lunging but in what we think is more of a play manner. Just today she learned to sit! With but a few minutes of training. I could absolutely see her doing agility. I'll have to look and see if we have anything like that around also!

 

Thanks, y'all!

 

Kim, YES!

 

Out at M&G or trips to the pet store, she is an angel. Take her on a walk in the hood or to the baseball park, and it's attention wh0r3 at its finest!

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Guest MnMDogs

I'm not sure (and others more experienced will hopefully comment on this) but to me, what you're describing doesn't seem to be leash aggression, at least not in the way I've experienced it. Paige has always had leash aggression and it has never taken the form of play bows,barking etc. It's more of a serious dominant posture, licking lips, thousand yard stare, a crouch, high pitched whine, frothing at the mouth followed by a lunge and the 'I will strain you through this muzzle and have you in bits' type barking. This would happen as soon as she saw another dog, regardless of size (though smaller dogs tended to get stalked), and took a long time to work through. This was partially complicated by her prey drive. She would also set Brandi off (who now gets very excited and lunges happily and barks).

 

What has worked is walking with a lot of treats. Every time Paige saw another dog she got a treat wedged into her mouth. This distracted her, and she found it difficult to bark with food in her mouth. But this had to be stuck in there before she went over threshold, otherwise she'd just drop it and go ballistic. She also isn't food motivated so it took time. Brandi got a treat for ignoring Paige and the other dog. Over a period of months (nearly a year), Paige now reacts in a much more similar way to your dog: dominant posture, a quick dart and bark, then back to me for a treat. It's become more of a game really - she has a definite swagger when she does it, rather than a very insecure, angry/ fearful intense reaction. And if the other dog is low energy, no reaction at all. Small fluffies are still problematic.

 

We've also done mixed breed obedience where we've stood around in class and she's been rewarded for lowering her reaction. This works because we have understanding trainers. We've never moved out of the first class (haven't mastered sit, down, stay, or 'look at me'), but we're no longer the worst behaved dog in the class either.

 

This is an excellent suggestion. Have you considered a consult with a professional trainer to get to the root of the issue? Macy May is leash aggressive with other breeds, and we thought for certain she was a big mean fighter. But based on her interactions with the trainer's dogs, it was obvious she was afraid. Terrified actually, and this was a fear response. I've experienced a lot of success with treating her BEFORE she hits her threshold. I call her name, and treat and praise her like crazy. It's gotten to the point that she will look at me for the treat when she sees another dog!!! It also has helped to walk her separately so I could focus my attention on her and correct her without Greg distracting us. Like your hound, he had started to pick up some of Macy May's bad behavior and it was getting to be too much!

 

Good luck... I can't tell you how many times Macy May has embarrassed us in the neighborhood, and she's really a sweet sweet dog.

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I'm not sure (and others more experienced will hopefully comment on this) but to me, what you're describing doesn't seem to be leash aggression, at least not in the way I've experienced it. Paige has always had leash aggression and it has never taken the form of play bows,barking etc. It's more of a serious dominant posture, licking lips, thousand yard stare, a crouch, high pitched whine, frothing at the mouth followed by a lunge and the 'I will strain you through this muzzle and have you in bits' type barking. This would happen as soon as she saw another dog, regardless of size (though smaller dogs tended to get stalked), and took a long time to work through. This was partially complicated by her prey drive. She would also set Brandi off (who now gets very excited and lunges happily and barks).

 

What has worked is walking with a lot of treats. Every time Paige saw another dog she got a treat wedged into her mouth. This distracted her, and she found it difficult to bark with food in her mouth. But this had to be stuck in there before she went over threshold, otherwise she'd just drop it and go ballistic. She also isn't food motivated so it took time. Brandi got a treat for ignoring Paige and the other dog. Over a period of months (nearly a year), Paige now reacts in a much more similar way to your dog: dominant posture, a quick dart and bark, then back to me for a treat. It's become more of a game really - she has a definite swagger when she does it, rather than a very insecure, angry/ fearful intense reaction. And if the other dog is low energy, no reaction at all. Small fluffies are still problematic.

 

We've also done mixed breed obedience where we've stood around in class and she's been rewarded for lowering her reaction. This works because we have understanding trainers. We've never moved out of the first class (haven't mastered sit, down, stay, or 'look at me'), but we're no longer the worst behaved dog in the class either.

 

This is an excellent suggestion. Have you considered a consult with a professional trainer to get to the root of the issue? Macy May is leash aggressive with other breeds, and we thought for certain she was a big mean fighter. But based on her interactions with the trainer's dogs, it was obvious she was afraid. Terrified actually, and this was a fear response. I've experienced a lot of success with treating her BEFORE she hits her threshold. I call her name, and treat and praise her like crazy. It's gotten to the point that she will look at me for the treat when she sees another dog!!! It also has helped to walk her separately so I could focus my attention on her and correct her without Greg distracting us. Like your hound, he had started to pick up some of Macy May's bad behavior and it was getting to be too much!

 

Good luck... I can't tell you how many times Macy May has embarrassed us in the neighborhood, and she's really a sweet sweet dog.

 

Not sure if this is at me or the OP, but in my case I suspect it was both prey drive and fear (Paige, not me. Sorry. Having problems writing clearly). We've had to walk ours together because Brandi wouldn't walk alone and Paige was always more pushy. But what we've found, as she's let herself become a pet, is that she's a very intense, nervy and high-strung little thing who has needed a lot of reassurance. Once we've developed a relationship, we've gotten better, but it still takes time and I don't always get it right. As she's trusted me more (and this took over 9 months), she's relaxed outside and towards other people as well.

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Have you tried turning in the other direction and have the dogs focus on you. Like already mentioned eye contact is important and settle, then lots of praise!

Maybe she needs to be walked separately from the others??

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Guest MnMDogs

I'm not sure (and others more experienced will hopefully comment on this) but to me, what you're describing doesn't seem to be leash aggression, at least not in the way I've experienced it. Paige has always had leash aggression and it has never taken the form of play bows,barking etc. It's more of a serious dominant posture, licking lips, thousand yard stare, a crouch, high pitched whine, frothing at the mouth followed by a lunge and the 'I will strain you through this muzzle and have you in bits' type barking. This would happen as soon as she saw another dog, regardless of size (though smaller dogs tended to get stalked), and took a long time to work through. This was partially complicated by her prey drive. She would also set Brandi off (who now gets very excited and lunges happily and barks).

 

What has worked is walking with a lot of treats. Every time Paige saw another dog she got a treat wedged into her mouth. This distracted her, and she found it difficult to bark with food in her mouth. But this had to be stuck in there before she went over threshold, otherwise she'd just drop it and go ballistic. She also isn't food motivated so it took time. Brandi got a treat for ignoring Paige and the other dog. Over a period of months (nearly a year), Paige now reacts in a much more similar way to your dog: dominant posture, a quick dart and bark, then back to me for a treat. It's become more of a game really - she has a definite swagger when she does it, rather than a very insecure, angry/ fearful intense reaction. And if the other dog is low energy, no reaction at all. Small fluffies are still problematic.

 

We've also done mixed breed obedience where we've stood around in class and she's been rewarded for lowering her reaction. This works because we have understanding trainers. We've never moved out of the first class (haven't mastered sit, down, stay, or 'look at me'), but we're no longer the worst behaved dog in the class either.

 

This is an excellent suggestion. Have you considered a consult with a professional trainer to get to the root of the issue? Macy May is leash aggressive with other breeds, and we thought for certain she was a big mean fighter. But based on her interactions with the trainer's dogs, it was obvious she was afraid. Terrified actually, and this was a fear response. I've experienced a lot of success with treating her BEFORE she hits her threshold. I call her name, and treat and praise her like crazy. It's gotten to the point that she will look at me for the treat when she sees another dog!!! It also has helped to walk her separately so I could focus my attention on her and correct her without Greg distracting us. Like your hound, he had started to pick up some of Macy May's bad behavior and it was getting to be too much!

 

Good luck... I can't tell you how many times Macy May has embarrassed us in the neighborhood, and she's really a sweet sweet dog.

 

Not sure if this is at me or the OP, but in my case I suspect it was both prey drive and fear (Paige, not me. Sorry. Having problems writing clearly). We've had to walk ours together because Brandi wouldn't walk alone and Paige was always more pushy. But what we've found, as she's let herself become a pet, is that she's a very intense, nervy and high-strung little thing who has needed a lot of reassurance. Once we've developed a relationship, we've gotten better, but it still takes time and I don't always get it right. As she's trusted me more (and this took over 9 months), she's relaxed outside and towards other people as well.

 

I'm sorry - it was for the OP :) But it's wonderful to hear that she's becoming more relaxed.

Edited by MnMDogs
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Doesn't sound like aggression to ME, but I would lose the harness.

 

Harnesses are great for spooks, but you really have LESS control of the dangerous bits (the teeth!) when your method of control is affixed to the most powerful part of the dog--the chest/back.

 

My dog IS leash aggressive. I cannot walk him with a harness because I need his MOUTH to be well out of reach of other dogs who pass, and that's simply not possible on a long necked, needlenosed dog wearing a harness.

 

If she were mine, I would do one-on-one walks with her, using a properly fitted martingale, work on "heel," and what has worked for me (more or less) is as soon as we see another dog, BEFORE my dog starts to get tuned up, I shove a treat in his mouth and just keep moving. This has made the issue workable.


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Guest FrankieWylie

I actually feel like I have more control of her with the harness. I can easily grab the back of it and have control of her entire body. With the martingale she would continue to jump and lunge moving her body around. She is overall much better with the harness.

 

I just don't know what the term is for her behavior and that's the only thing I could think of. We are going to do some one on one with her and see how it goes. I've taught her to sit in hopes that while walking we can sit and wait and watch the dog pass by.

Since she isn't food motivated I think we are going to have to use hot dogs or something. Something she doesn't ever get to peak her interest.

 

I am loving all the suggestions. I'm off from work today and 3/4 of the kids are home so I will have time to take her on her own walk! I hate that the time has changed because that eliminates working with her after I get home. We still walk in the dark, but not many other pups do :/

 

I think working her one on one in the middle of the day with fewer distractions is a good start though!

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Guest PiagetsMom

My Maya is leash "reactive".......her actions are not because she's aggressive with other dogs, but because she is unsure, or fearful. We're working with a veterinary behaviorist for her, as it was not something that I could conquer on my own.

 

I would definitely suggest that you walk her by herself so that you can focus on her, and off hours with fewer distractions are a much better way to try to build her threshold without the constant presence of triggers. We use the "look at me" method along with small pieces of hot dog for rewards - you definitely want to use something really yummy that she doesn't get for anything else. And, yes, a pup who will not take a treat (who normally will) has already crossed over it's threshold. I was originally told to mark her "look at me" with a cue word (I used "perfect"), but I've recently switched to marking her with a clicker on walks, and that seems to work somewhat better, as it's consistantly the same.

 

It's slow going, or at least it has been with Maya - lots of consistancy and patience required. Good luck with your girl :)

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Guest FrankieWylie

That's a great way to put it. Easily excitable with poor impulse control. Yes!

 

Got get her in check before next baseball season. Can't have her out there like she was in the fall. Not to mention the embarrassment factor on walks :/

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My Joey has poor impulse control and redirects it on whoever happens to be standing next to him at the time with snarling and snapping. He's gotten much better over the years and doesn't jump on the dogs any more but I've had to stay on top of this boy. Just the door bell used to set him off. He doesn't go nuts when it rings any more.

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Guest Greyt_dog_lover

My suggestion would be extensive obedience classes. Your hound needs to learn her place in the world and the obedience will teach impulse control, it will build your relationship as well as bond you both better. I am not one for the "alpha" theory, but with the obedience classes, your hound will hopefully listen to you more and loook to you for guidance.

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Guest FrankieWylie

We are looking into them. I think it would also be great stimulation for her as well. She's smart as a whip and energetic (just turned 3). I have no doubt she would love it!

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I actually feel like I have more control of her with the harness. I can easily grab the back of it and have control of her entire body. With the martingale she would continue to jump and lunge moving her body around. She is overall much better with the harness.

 

I just don't know what the term is for her behavior and that's the only thing I could think of. We are going to do some one on one with her and see how it goes. I've taught her to sit in hopes that while walking we can sit and wait and watch the dog pass by.

Since she isn't food motivated I think we are going to have to use hot dogs or something. Something she doesn't ever get to peak her interest.

 

I am loving all the suggestions. I'm off from work today and 3/4 of the kids are home so I will have time to take her on her own walk! I hate that the time has changed because that eliminates working with her after I get home. We still walk in the dark, but not many other pups do :/

 

I think working her one on one in the middle of the day with fewer distractions is a good start though!

 

I walk Paige in a harness because her reaction were such that I thought I might damage her neck as she went off. But I need to muzzle my girls anyhow so the biting bit isn't too much of an issue.

 

Paige is also not food motivated and actually has a very sensitive stomach. So the treat thing can work. Basically, when you or she sees another dog, grab a treat and stick it in her mouth while telling her she's a good dog. Keep moving or stop, but keep on feeding treats until the other dog goes past. Given you've got less aggression and more something else, how you move forward from there is your call. Paige is never allowed to play with other dog breeds so my main aim is to reduce the aggression. But you can 'teach' a dog to be food motivated, and look to you for treats every time another dog appears, or you hear barking or whatever.

 

Good luck!

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Guest FrankieWylie

Round one today was slow going.

 

We got three steps up the road and two dogs were coming around the corner (a T intersection and thankfully they turned the other way.. Before I could get her attention she already started in. Greg and I both tried to stand in front of her and distract her while attempting to shove treats in her mouth. It wasn't high value treats though. So, we will try again tomorrow, taking her out in the morning before she eats breakfast and with some hot dog or cheese.

We continued on our walk and she was on high alert the entire time. It was rare she would look at me when I called her name. So, we would just stop entirely until she would look. Is that what you should do?

 

She is an easily distracted girl for sure. Wants to sniff EVERYTHiNG, perks ears up and out at any sound. So, for the rest of the walk we worked on "wait" and keeping her walking right next to me and not roaming. She didn't do too bad, but needs a lot more work for sure.

 

So, tomorrow we will bust out the big treats and see what happens. Hopefully she will be hungrier and more interested in the hot dog.

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Sounds familiar! Personally I didnt even try to get Paige's attention when she went off. If she was below threshold I would wedge treats in regardless if she was looking at me or elsewhere. Generally when I did that I'd be rewarded with a quick eye flick at me then back to the others. After a week or two of this I noticed the quick eye flick and a longer pause before Cujo appeared. Months later I get a full head turn and bump to my thigh (sometimes) before Cujo.

 

If mine goes over threshold, I've found trying to keep her still to make things worse. What works for me is either turning very tight circles with her on my inside against my thigh. This forces her attention onto me and where my big feet are rather than the other dog. Walk quickly while doing this. Then when she's calm, treat. I've also run her up and down a steep hill or slope or walked in the opposite direction quickly, changing direction. All of this forces her to pay attention to you and makes that easier and more rewarding than doing the wrong thing.

 

Try not to get frustrated or angry (I'm sure you're not) and if you do, don't get too loud about it. Bitter experience has taught me calm but firm works best, backed up by celebrations of the good.

 

Finally, if you can, have a look at what time you're walking and how light it is. I've found her to be hyper alert and more reactive at dusk and just before dawn which I think are natural times to hunt. Although I know it's tricky to work in walks at ideal times, if you can manage a full daylight walk for training it might be a bit easier.

 

Can't remember how long you've had your girl either, but it also becomes easier when you become familiar with her body language so I've found really becoming aware of what Paige and Brandi are telling me about my surroundings has been helpful.

 

Hang in there! I'm sure others will wander by and chime in with their experiences and tips.

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Guest FrankieWylie

Thanks Brandiandwe! It's usually full light when we walk. I'm not an early riser LOL, and so far we haven't gone on an evening walk since the time change.

 

 

We've had her for almost a year now. This behavior is relatively new, actually. It started this fall at the baseball field and then turned into happening on walks. We feel far more embarrassed than we do angry, because she used to be just fine. Well, not fine, but a bow, a bark and a tail wag. Now she is leap, bark bark bark. I love her energy, and that she wants to play. We just need to rein her in and let her know what is acceptable behavior and what isn't.

 

I blame my husband. Figuring he has somehow spoiled her as he's managed to do with the others ;) It's all Greg's fault :rofl

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We got three steps up the road and two dogs were coming around the corner (a T intersection and thankfully they turned the other way.. Before I could get her attention she already started in. Greg and I both tried to stand in front of her and distract her while attempting to shove treats in her mouth. It wasn't high value treats though.

 

As Brandiandwe noted, once she's started reacting, she's too aroused and beyond learning. Don't try to train at that point, and just try to get her farther away from the trigger. Rather than better treats and going when she's hungry, find some locations where you can work with her at a distance from passing dogs - far enough away that she can remain fairly calm and you can get her attention back on you fairly easily. As you make progress, you can gradually decrease the distance.

 

It was rare she would look at me when I called her name. So, we would just stop entirely until she would look. Is that what you should do?

 

Actually, it sounds like you may need to back up a step and not work on desensitizing to triggers at all yet. First, build a foundation by working with her in a quiet, non-distracting environment (like inside your home) to teach her to respond to you when you give her a specific cue. The cue should be a distinct, neutral sound that you can make quickly even in a stressful situation. Something like the clucking sound you make with your tongue to get a dog's attention, or to get a horse to move.

 

Start by pairing the sound with a special treat reward by making the sound and immediately giving her the treat. Repeat this several times while standing right next to her. Then from a few steps away so that she has to come to you. Keep the sessions short and always give her a treat after the sound. After a few sessions, her response when she hears the sound should be to immediately and almost automatically look at and come to you.

 

After you've established this response, you can start to use it in other situations, but it is important to build the level of difficulty very gradually. Take her to places that she might find a little more interesting but not be totally distracted (like outside your house, around your yard and neighboring yards). Then move on to more distracting areas, like parks and other public places, but still without her strongest triggers (other dogs).

 

If you build up gradually enough, this cued attention response can become so ingrained that it can eventually be used to refocus her attention away from other dogs (but still best done before she starts to react). Until you get to this point, it's best to try to avoid triggers by walking at non-peak times, taking routes that are less likely to have other dogs, and go the opposite way if you see a dog approaching. Each time she practices the reactive behavior, the more that response becomes ingrained.

 

The above technique is something I've learned from Norwegian trainer Turid Rugaas. She's been able to successfully call her dog off of a deer that jumped across the trail in front of them, but that was after years of practice. I would highly recommend Rugaas' books My Dog Pulls, What Do I Do? and Barking: The Sound of a Language. Both are very relevant to on-leash reactive behavior and can be found through Amazon.com or Dogwise.com.

 

One final note, if this is a new behavior and her response on leash had gradually got worse with time, I suspect your reaction may have contributed. It is very natural for us to tense up and pull back on the leash when anticipating a response, but this can actually make the dog worse because they sense our stress and anxiety. I've made this mistake with a dog myself. Try to stay calm and relaxed when you walk her, and pay attention to your body language and what you're transmitting to her through the leash. Keep the leash loose if at all possible, and rely more on your voice rather than the leash to get her attention.

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What works for me is either turning very tight circles with her on my inside against my thigh. This forces her attention onto me and where my big feet are rather than the other dog. Walk quickly while doing this. Then when she's calm, treat. I've also run her up and down a steep hill or slope or walked in the opposite direction quickly, changing direction. All of this forces her to pay attention to you and makes that easier and more rewarding than doing the wrong thing.

 

Try not to get frustrated or angry (I'm sure you're not) and if you do, don't get too loud about it. Bitter experience has taught me calm but firm works best, backed up by celebrations of the good.

 

Finally, if you can, have a look at what time you're walking and how light it is. I've found her to be hyper alert and more reactive at dusk and just before dawn which I think are natural times to hunt. Although I know it's tricky to work in walks at ideal times, if you can manage a full daylight walk for training it might be a bit easier.

 

 

Ditto on above

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